Birth Injury Causes

Quick Answer

A birth injury is an injury to an infant during the birthing process. These injuries can be caused by illness, difficult labor or medical malpractice. Some birth injuries are temporary and resolve relatively quickly, while others are debilitating both physically and neurologically and can last a lifetime. Birth injuries that affect the neck and brain are particularly dangerous and can lead to serious conditions like cerebral palsy or brain damage.

Get a Free Case Review

Birth Injury Causes Explained

A birth injury is categorized as an injury to an infant before, during or directly after the birthing process. Birth injuries may be temporary with symptoms that resolve in a few days to a few weeks. However, they may also be permanent with severe symptoms that last for the child’s entire life.

The conditions and factors that led to the birth injury determine the type and scope of the problem. There are maternal conditions, infant conditions and external factors that can all lead to birth injuries of varying severity.

For instance, oxygen deprivation to the infant immediately before birth can cause brain damage. Infants who suffer brain damage during the birthing process are much more likely to have lifelong neurological problems.

On the other hand, a physician pulling on a child’s neck to quicken the pace of delivery can damage the nerves responsible for the shoulder or arm and cause Erb’s palsy. Infants diagnosed with Erb’s palsy after birth have a positive prognosis as over 80% of patients make a full recovery and regain complete control of their afflicted arm.

Conditions that Can Cause Birth Injury

A number of different conditions can cause a birth injury. Women or infants suffering from these conditions during any portion of the birthing process may be at higher risk.

It is important to understand the maternal, infant and external conditions associated with higher risk of birth injury so that they can be identified and avoided.

Maternal Conditions

  • The mother’s pelvis may have the wrong shape or size for a safe delivery: If the mother’s pelvis shape is not conducive to an easy birth, there is the potential for the child to struggle or twist in a manner that reduces their oxygen flow.
  • Difficult labor or delivery (dystocia): Difficult labor may be caused by a fetus that is awkwardly positioned or by a cervix that does not expand in a normal fashion. Either of these conditions can make it difficult for the child and can cause a birth injury.
  • Prolonged labor: Prolonged labor is generally associated with a higher risk of birth injuries.

Infant Conditions

  • Babies that weigh over 8 pounds and 13 ounces: Heavier infants find the birthing process more difficult and are more susceptible to birth injuries.
  • Babies born before the 37th week of pregnancy (prematurity): Premature births have higher rates of birth injuries because the child’s muscles and nervous system are not fully developed.
  • Abnormal fetal position at birth: Infants born in an abnormal position, such as those in the head-up, buttocks-first or breech positions, are more likely to suffer a birth injury.

External Conditions

  • Physical injury to child during delivery: Physical injuries during the birth process can cause serious birth injuries. These injuries may occur when a doctor uses forceps or the vacuum extraction method during delivery.

Types of Birth Injury Causes

There are several different types of birth injury causes. These causes are typically separated into four groups: delayed birth, oxygen deprivation, medical malpractice and other causes. Each cause is distinct and can lead to injuries with different sets of symptoms.

Delayed Birth

Delayed birth is one of the most common causes of birth injuries. When labor lasts for over 18 hours, it is considered a delayed birth. During a delayed birth, pressure increases on the infant’s brain. The compression can lead to fetal distress and elevated blood pressure. High blood pressure during the birthing process can cause a stroke or other cardiovascular issues.

Oxygen Deprivation

Oxygen deprivation is a serious problem that can cause a wide range of injuries to newborn infants. Oxygen deprivation may be caused by a prolapsed umbilical cord or by lungs that have not fully developed, such as those in an infant born prematurely. Most brain related birth injuries are due to oxygen deprivation during birth. The most severe brain injuries can last for a lifetime.

Medical Malpractice

A doctor’s excessive use of force or medical negligence during delivery can lead to a birth injury. Medical professionals are trained to understand the birthing process and which challenges to be aware of. However, inexperienced staff or impatient doctors can misread data or even cause blunt force trauma.

For instance, delivery methods such as forceps and vacuum extraction can damage the child’s brain during delivery. Negligent staff may not properly monitor an expectant mother, missing issues such as low oxygen flow to the fetal brain.

Other Causes

There are several other potential birth injuries causes. If the child’s body is improperly manipulated during delivery, it can lead to difficulty leaving the birth canal and cause oxygen deprivation. Certain medications can also lead to birth complications, as can viral or bacterial infections in the mother or infant during pregnancy.

How to Determine the Cause of Your Child’s Birth Injury

If you suspect that your child has suffered a birth injury, speak with a doctor as soon as possible. A medical professional will be able to diagnose your child’s injury and determine its cause.

Birth injuries are frightening for parents and distressing for infants. In some cases, it may be helpful to get a second opinion on your child’s injury, especially if the injury is severe or requires a complex treatment plan.

Some birth injuries are caused by maternal or infant factors that are difficult to control. Unfortunately, many of the birth injuries suffered by infants each year stem from medical malpractice and could have been avoided through proper medical care during the birthing process.

If you believe that your child may have suffered a physical birth injury, it is important to speak to a doctor and receive assessment tests to make a diagnosis and determine the scope of the damage.

Birth Injury Support Team

The Birth Injury Justice Center was founded in 2003 by a team of legal professionals to educate and empower victims and families affected by birth injuries. Our team is devoted to providing you with the best resources and legal information for all types of birth injuries.

View Sources
  1. Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, M., Talebian, A., Jahangiri, M., Mesdaghinia, E., & Mohammadzadeh, M. (2015). Incidence of Neonatal Birth Injuries and Related Factors in Kashan, Iran. Archives of trauma research, 4(1), e22831.
  2. Akangire, G & Carter, B. (2016). Pediatrics in Review. 37 (11) 451-462; DOI:
  3. Ojumah, N., Ramdhan, R. C., Wilson, C., Loukas, M., Oskouian, R. J., & Tubbs, R. S. (2017). Neurological Neonatal Birth Injuries: A Literature Review. Cureus, 9(12), e1938.
Back to Top