Erb’s Palsy

Fact-Checked and Medically Reviewed by:
Beth Carter Registered Nurse, Legal Nurse Consultant Certified
Quick Answer

Erb’s palsy is a type of birth injury caused by nerve damage in the shoulder, arm, and/or hand. Over 80% of children with Erb’s palsy will make a full recovery with treatment, but health care expenses can add up quickly. If your child’s Erb’s palsy was caused by a medical mistake during the delivery process, your family may qualify for financial assistance.

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What Is Erb’s Palsy?

Baby being fed

1 out of 1000 babies are born with Erb's Palsy

According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS)

Erb’s palsy, also called brachial plexus birth palsy or Erb-Duchenne palsy, is a condition caused by nerve damage during the birthing process.

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that send signals from the spine to the shoulders, arms, and hands. Erb’s palsy can develop if these nerves are pulled or stretched too hard.


Types of Erb’s Palsy Injuries

There are several types of Erb’s palsy injuries. The type of brachial plexus injury a child develops can depend on the severity of damage to the nerve network.

The four types of nerve injuries are:


This is the most common type of Erb’s palsy. In this type, the nerves are stretched but not torn, causing a stinging or burning sensation. Neuropraxias generally heal on their own in three months or less.


More severe than neuropraxias, neuromas occur when scar tissue develops as nerves heal from an initial tear. This places pressure on healthy nerves. Most children with neuromas will only partially recover.


This injury occurs when the nerve is torn. This type of injury does not heal on its own and generally requires nerve graft surgery to put damaged nerves back together.


This is the most severe brachial plexus injury and occurs when the nerve roots are completely torn from the spinal cord, resulting in permanent muscle weakness/paralysis. Surgery can help repair torn nerves, but cannot reattach them to the spinal cord.

Causes of Erb’s Palsy

cbi babyOne of the most common causes of Erb’s palsy is a condition called shoulder dystocia, which occurs when an infant’s shoulder is caught behind the mother’s pubic bone during childbirth.

When a medical professional pulls on the baby to release their shoulder, it can stretch or tear the healthy nerves of the brachial plexus.

Other situations that may cause Erb’s palsy include:

  • Pulling the baby’s head or neck sideways as they pass through the birth canal during a difficult delivery
  • Pulling the baby’s shoulders during a head-first delivery
  • Pulling on the baby’s feet during a feet-first (breech) delivery, putting too much pressure on the infant’s arms
  • Shoulder dislocation or fractures in the collarbone (clavicle)

All of the actions listed above may be considered medical negligence. Doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals who use too much force during delivery can cause preventable cases of Erb’s palsy.

There are also a few risk factors that may increase the odds of a child developing a brachial plexus nerve injury during delivery.

Risk factors leading to Erb’s palsy include:

  • Abnormal maternal pelvis shape
  • Birth weight over 8 pounds, 13 ounces (macrosomia)
  • C-section (cesarean section)
  • Maternal diabetes
  • Maternal obesity
  • Second stage of labor lasting longer than one hour
  • Use of forceps or vacuum delivery

Talk to one of our caring registered nurses today to learn if your child’s injury was caused by medical negligence.

Nurse Beth Carter

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Other Types of Brachial Plexus Injuries

There are other types of brachial plexus injuries besides Erb’s palsy. These injuries are much rarer than Erb’s palsy, but present similar symptoms and respond to the same treatments.
Other types of brachial plexus injuries include:

  • Klumpke’s Palsy: This type of injury involves nerve damage in the lower arm and affects mobility in the hand and wrist.
  • Total Brachial Plexus Palsy: This condition involves nerve damage in both the lower and upper arm and causes complete paralysis in the affected limb.

Since these conditions have similar signs as Erb’s palsy, it is important to get a proper diagnosis from a doctor in order to get the best treatment.

Erb’s Palsy Symptoms

There are several common symptoms that may mean a child has developed Erb’s palsy. These Erb’s palsy symptoms can vary depending on how damaged the brachial plexus nerves are.

Notable signs of Erb’s palsy include:

  • Limited ability to grasp objects or only using one hand to grasp
  • Limited muscular or nerve development in the arm or hand
  • Limp arm, wrist, or hand
  • Muscle weakness in one arm
  • Numbness or tingling in shoulder, arm, or hand
  • Partial or complete paralysis of the arm

If you had a difficult childbirth and your baby is experiencing any of the symptoms listed above, they may have developed preventable Erb’s palsy.

Diagnosis of Erb’s Palsy

If you suspect your child has Erb’s palsy, you should consult your doctor or pediatrician. Only a medical expert can accurately make an Erb’s palsy diagnosis.

A doctor will conduct several examinations and imaging tests to diagnose brachial plexus palsy.

Common Erb’s palsy assessment tests include:

  • CT (computed tomography) scan: This scan takes images from several angles of the body to search for damage to soft tissues such as the brachial plexus.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan: This scan takes images of the internal tissues in the body to look for brachial plexus nerve damage.
  • Nerve conduction study: This physical test finds how quickly the electrical impulses from electrodes travel through the brachial plexus nerves.
  • Physical examination: Doctors will look for any physical signs of nerve damage such as muscle weakness and limited mobility of the arm, shoulder, wrist, or hand.

Your child’s doctor may use a combination of these diagnostic tests to determine an accurate diagnosis.

Preparing for the Doctor’s Appointment

When prepping for your child’s doctor’s appointment, it’s important to note their symptoms and how long they have been going on for. Early detection and treatment are the keys to fully recovering from Erb’s palsy.


Take Our Milestones Quiz

Taking note of your child’s physical, social, and emotional skills can help you determine if they potentially suffered from an injury at birth. An early diagnosis can help your child get the treatment they need as soon as possible.

Q1: How old is your child?

0-2 Months

3-4 Months

5-6 Months

7-9 Months

10-12 Months

13-18 Months

19-23 Months

24+ Months


  • Q2: Hold their head steadily on their own?
  • Q3: Push themselves up when they are lying on their stomach?
  • Q4: Start to make smoother movements with their arms and legs?
  • Q5: Smile at other people?
  • Q6: Bring their hands to their mouth?
  • Q7: Turn their head when they hear a noise?
  • Q8: Coo or make gurgling noises?
  • Q9: Follow things with their eyes?
  • Q10: Try to look at their parents or caregivers?
  • Q11: Show boredom, cry, or fuss when engaged in an activity that hasn’t changed in awhile?
BACKBACK0-2-years old child


  • Q2: Hold their head steadily on their own?
  • Q3: Push down on their legs when their feet are on a flat surface?
  • Q4: Start to roll over from their stomach to their back?
  • Q5: Hold and shake a toy such as a rattle?
  • Q6: Bring their hands to their mouth?
  • Q7: Play with people and start to cry when the playing stops?
  • Q8: Smile spontaneously, especially at people?
  • Q9: Copy some movements and facial expressions of other people?
  • Q10: Babbles with expressions and copy sounds they hear?
  • Q11: Cries in different ways to show hunger, pain, or being tired?
  • Q12: Respond to affection like hugging or kissing?
  • Q13: Follows moving things with eyes from side to side?
  • Q14: Recognize familiar people at a distance?
BACKBACK3-4-years old child


  • Q2: Roll over on both sides (front to back/back to front)?
  • Q3: Begin to sit without support?
  • Q4: Rock back and forth?
  • Q5: Supports weight on legs and might bounce when standing?
  • Q6: Begin to pass things from one hand to another?
  • Q7: Bring objects such as toys to their mouth?
  • Q8: Know if someone is not familiar to them and is a stranger?
  • Q9: Respond to other people’s emotions such as a smile or a frown?
  • Q10: Enjoy looking at themselves in the mirror?
  • Q11: Look at things around them?
  • Q12: Respond to sounds they hear by making sounds themselves?
  • Q13: Make sounds to show joy or displeasure?
  • Q14: Respond to their own name?
  • Q15: Start to string vowels together such as "ah," "eh," "oh," or say consonant sounds such as "m" or "b"?
  • Q16: Begin to laugh?
BACKBACK5-6-years old child


  • Q2: Crawl?
  • Q3: Stand while holding onto something to support them?
  • Q4: Sit without support?
  • Q5: Pull themselves up to stand?
  • Q6: Play peek-a-boo?
  • Q7: Move things from one hand to another?
  • Q8: Pick small things up such as a piece of cereal with their thumb and index finger?
  • Q9: Look for things that they see you hide?
  • Q10: Watch the path of something as it falls?
  • Q11: Show fear over being around strangers?
  • Q12: Become clingy with adults familiar to them?
  • Q13: Have favorite toys?
  • Q14: Use their fingers to point?
  • Q15: Understand “no?”
  • Q16: Make a lot of repetitive sounds such as “mamama” or “bababa”?
  • Q17: Copy sounds and gestures of other people?
BACKBACK7-9 years old child


  • Q2: Stand alone with no support?
  • Q3: Walk while holding onto furniture?
  • Q4: Take a few steps without holding onto anything?
  • Q5: Get into a sitting position without any help?
  • Q6: Bang two things together when playing?
  • Q7: Poke with their index finger?
  • Q8: Start to use things like hair brushes or drinking cups correctly?
  • Q9: Find hidden objects easily?
  • Q10: Play peek-a-boo or pat-a-cake?
  • Q11: Become shy or nervous around strangers?
  • Q12: Repeat actions or sounds to get attention?
  • Q13: Puts out an arm or leg to help when getting dressed?
  • Q14: Cry when a parent leaves the room?
  • Q15: Show that they have favorite things or people?
  • Q16: Show fear?
  • Q17: Say things such as “mama,” “dada,” or “uh-oh”?
  • Q18: Try to say the words you say?
  • Q19: Start to use gestures like waving or shaking head “no”?
BACKBACK10-12 years old child


  • Q2: Walk by themselves?
  • Q3: Walk up stairs and run?
  • Q4: Pulls toys while walking?
  • Q5: Drink from a cup on their own?
  • Q6: Eat with a spoon on their own?
  • Q7: Can help undress themselves?
  • Q8: Have occasional temper tantrums?
  • Q9: Show affection to familiar people?
  • Q10: Become clingy in new situations?
  • Q11: Explore their environment alone with parents close by?
  • Q12: Say several single words?
  • Q13: Say and shake their head “no”?
  • Q14: Point to show things to other people?
  • Q15: Scribble?
  • Q16: Know what ordinary products such as phones, spoons, and brushes are used for?
  • Q17: Follow 1-step commands such as “sit down” or “stand up”?
  • Q18: Plays with a doll or stuffed animal by pretending to feed them?
BACKBACK13-18 years old child


  • Q2: Begin to run?
  • Q3: Kick a ball?
  • Q4: Climb down and onto furniture on their own?
  • Q5: Walk up and down stairs while holding on?
  • Q6: Stand on their tiptoes?
  • Q7: Throw a ball overhand?
  • Q8: Copy others, especially people older than them?
  • Q9: Get excited around other children?
  • Q10: Show more independence as they age?
  • Q11: Do what they were told not to do and become defiant?
  • Q12: Point to things when they are named?
  • Q13: Know names of familiar people or body parts?
  • Q14: Say 2 to 4-word sentences?
  • Q15: Repeat words they hear?
  • Q16: Complete sentences and rhymes in familiar books?
  • Q17: Name items in books such as dogs, cats, birds, etc.?
  • Q18: Play simple pretend games?
  • Q19: Start to use one hand more than the other?
  • Q20: Begin to sort shapes and colors?
  • Q21: Follow 2-step instructions such as “pick up your hat and put it on your head?”
BACKBACK19-23 years old child


  • Q2: Run easily?
  • Q3: Climb?
  • Q4: Walk up and down stairs with one foot on each step?
  • Q5: Dress and undress themselves?
  • Q6: Show affection for friends without being told?
  • Q7: Take turns when playing games?
  • Q8: Show concern when others are crying?
  • Q9: Understand the idea of “mine,” “his,” or “hers”?
  • Q10: Show many different emotions?
  • Q11: Copy adults and friends?
  • Q12: Separate easily from their parents?
  • Q13: Get upset when there is a major change in their routine?
  • Q14: Say words such as “I,” “me,” “we,” “you,” and some plural nouns?
  • Q15: Say their first name, age, and gender?
  • Q16: Carry on a conversation with 2 to 3 sentences?
  • Q17: Work toys with buttons and other moving parts?
  • Q18: Play pretend with dolls, animals, or people?
  • Q19: Finish 3 or 4 piece puzzles?
  • Q20: Copy a circle when drawing?
  • Q21: Turn pages of a book one page at a time?
  • Q22: Turn door handles?
BACKBACK24 months + old child

Erb’s Palsy Prognosis

Once your child has been diagnosed, your doctor will give you a prognosis. An Erb’s palsy prognosis is the expected outlook of the condition. Thankfully, the overall outlook for brachial plexus palsy is generally very good.

Erb’s Palsy Recovery Outlook

According to a study conducted by Dalhousie University and the IWK Health Centre in Nova Scotia, 80% to 96% of newborns will completely recover from Erb’s palsy.

With prompt and proper therapy, mild cases of Erb’s palsy heal within a few months. However, severe cases may never fully heal, even with treatments like therapy and surgery.

Catching Erb’s palsy as early as possible is the best way to ensure your child can get effective treatment.

Erb’s Palsy Treatment

erbs palsy doctor checking on childDoctors will use your child’s diagnosis and prognosis to determine the best treatment plan for their condition.

Mild cases of stretched nerves may only require physical therapy. More severe cases of torn nerves may require intensive treatment and surgery to help the child regain mobility of their arm, hand, or shoulder.

The key to recovering fully from Erb’s palsy is to start treatment early. Erb’s palsy treatment is most effective when it begins within the first four weeks after the child’s birth. Most babies with Erb’s palsy will recover completely within 12 months of age with proper treatment.

Most babies with Erb’s palsy will recover completely within 12 months of age with proper treatment.

Learn more about treatment options for Erb’s palsy below.

Physical Therapy

Most cases of Erb’s palsy are mild and can heal with physical therapy.

Physical therapy activities for Erb’s palsy include:

  • Range-of-motion exercises
  • Sensory activities
  • Strength training
  • Stretching

The best type of physical therapy for your child depends on the issues they face. Stretches and range-of-motion exercises can improve a child’s control over their arm, while sensory activities can help to restore any lost feeling.

Doctors may also incorporate water therapy into an Erb’s palsy physical therapy plan to reduce stress on the child’s body and to help them move freely.

Occupational Therapy

Occupational therapy may be used to help children improve the use of their hands and fingers. This type of therapy focuses on these exercises to improve independence and ability to complete daily tasks.

Occupational therapy can help children refine their skills while:

  • Bathing
  • Brushing their teeth and hair
  • Drawing
  • Dressing
  • Eating and drinking
  • Writing


Surgery for Erb’s palsy can repair damage to brachial plexus nerves that will not heal on their own, such as avulsions. It is typically used only if your child does not show improvement despite other treatment options.

Nerve or tendon transfers remove healthy nerves from another part of the body to repair damaged brachial plexus nerves. Doctors may even decide to completely remove severely damaged nerve fibers that cannot be repaired.

While a more drastic measure than regular therapy, surgery is often successful. Researchers in
Nova Scotia reported that surgery improved the symptoms of Erb’s palsy in roughly two-thirds of patients.

Legal Help for Erb’s Palsy

Many cases of Erb’s palsy are caused by medical mistakes during delivery. Doctors, nurses, and other health care providers who commit acts of medical negligence during the birthing process can cause significant damage to the brachial plexus.

Medical professionals who cause preventable birth injuries should be held accountable for their actions. Your family should not be responsible for paying for your child’s Erb’s palsy treatment if it was preventable.

Thankfully, you may qualify for financial assistance through a medical malpractice claim. Compensation from a legal settlement can help you pay for your child’s Erb’s palsy treatment in hopes that they’ll fully recover.

If you believe your child’s Erb’s palsy stems from medical negligence during birth, get a free case review now to learn more about getting compensation.

Erb’s Palsy FAQs

What causes Erb’s palsy?

Excessively pulling, stretching, or twisting the brachial plexus nerve network can cause a child to develop Erb’s palsy during the birthing process.

Can Erb’s Palsy be fixed?

Yes. Although every case is different, most cases of Erb’s palsy can be completely or partially fixed.

How can I give my child the best chance of a full recovery from Erb’s palsy?

The best way to help your child fully recover from Erb’s palsy is to get a prompt diagnosis and proper treatment.

The sooner your child is accurately diagnosed with Erb’s palsy, the sooner they are able to get treatment to manage their condition. Treatment focuses on helping the child regain strength and mobility in the affected arm in an effort to make a full recovery.

Is Erb’s palsy preventable?

It depends. Some cases of Erb’s palsy are caused by risk factors that may not be preventable. However, many cases are caused by lack of care during delivery.

Some medical professionals may use excess force during delivery, causing brachial plexus damage. In these situations, medical negligence may be to blame.

To find out if your child’s brachial plexus palsy may have been preventable, contact us today.

Birth Injury Support Team
Reviewed by:Beth Carter

Registered Nurse, Legal Nurse Consultant Certified

  • Fact-Checked
  • Editor

Beth Carter has over 18 years of experience as a Registered Nurse. She spent nearly half of that time working in labor and delivery units. This, combined with her own experience giving birth to a premature baby, ignite Beth’s passion for helping new mothers access the information and resources they deserve.

The Birth Injury Justice Center was founded in 2003 by a team of legal professionals to educate and empower victims and families affected by birth injuries. Our team is devoted to providing you with the best resources and legal information for all types of birth injuries.

View 7 Sources
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  2. Chater, M., Camfield, P., & Camfield, C. (2004, October 1). Erb's palsy – who is to blame and what will happen? OUP Academic. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from
  3. Erb's palsy (brachial plexus birth palsy) - orthoinfo - AAOS. OrthoInfo. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2022, from
  4. Erb's palsy (brachial plexus birth palsy) - orthoinfo - AAOS. OrthoInfo. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2022, from
  5. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2020, April 15). Brachial plexus injury. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from
  6. Nerve conduction studies. Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2022, from
  7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Klumpke paralysis. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from
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